The Growth of Form-Based Codes in Michigan Zoning

            In Michigan the governmental regulation of land use is largely achieved through the Michigan Zoning Enabling Act, (“MZEA”), MCL 125.3101, et seq.  The MZEA allows local municipalities to adopt zoning ordinances which regulate the physical appearance and use of property within their jurisdiction.  For decades zoning ordinances adopted pursuant to the MZEA or its predecessors focused primarily on regulating the use of property, and not necessarily on the physical form of the property and its buildings.  Over the past two decades there has been a slow and gradual shift from use-based zoning to zoning based on the physical form of property, especially in downtown areas.


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Court rules that Michigan HOA cannot collect assessments after restrictive covenant expires

In Deghetto v Beaumont’s Seven Harbors White and Duck Lack Association, issued June 22, 2017 (Docket No. 330972) (Unpublished Opinion), the Michigan Court of Appeals recently ruled that a homeowners’ association could not continue to collect assessments after the restrictive covenant expired.

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In Case of First Impression, Michigan Court of Appeals Rules that Foreclosure by Advertisement Sale Surplus Funds Must Be Distributed According to Priority of Interests in the Foreclosed Property

On May 9, 2017, the Michigan Court of Appeals issued an opinion in ‘In re $55,336.17 Surplus Funds.  The Surplus Fund case is important as the Court was called on to interpret the procedure for distributing foreclosure sale surplus funds and determining the priority of parties claiming an interest in the surplus funds.

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Paragon Properties: The Rule of Finality in Challenging Municipal Land Use Decisions


            The relationship between municipalities and land developers is often one of compromise, with each attempting to find some middle-ground in order to move forward on a particular project.  In many instances, however, the municipality and developer are unable to reach such a compromise and the parties find that their positions are irreconcilable.  In such instances the developer may believe that their only next viable option is to seek redress in the court system.  But before doing so, it is important that a developer recognize the limitations on judicial review of land use decisions by a municipality.  Specifically, if a developer does not satisfy the “rule of finality,” the developer may find that they have no right to seek a judicial remedy at all.  The rule of finality helps to ensure that a municipality is given an opportunity to make a final decision on the matter before it.  Without such a final opportunity, judicial review is not available.

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What is a Personal Guaranty and Why is It Important with a Commercial Lease?



At some point in their lives, most adults have signed a lease agreement, whether it be the leasing of an automobile, an apartment on campus while attending college or renting a home. Since most of these leases are standard forms offered on a “take it or leave it” basis by the lessor or landlord, negotiating the base rent and term of the lease is typically the main and only focus for the lessee.

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Michigan Court Reaffirms Mortgagor’s Right to Contest Validity of Foreclosure by Advertisement in Summary Proceeding Action

On January 12, 2017, the Michigan Court of Appeals issued an unpublished opinion in the matter of JPMorgan Chase Bank v Zair.  The Zair case is important as a reminder that a mortgagor may, for the first time in any proceedings, contest the validity of the foreclosure by advertisement sale in the summary proceeding.


The case involves real property located in West Bloomfield.   Defendants Kays Zair and Patrice Zair (“Zair”) were the record title owners of the real property and executed a promissory note and mortgage against the property in favor of Peoples State Bank in April of 2002 (“Peoples mortgage”).  In December of 2006, the Zairs executed a promissory note and mortgage in favor of JPMorgan Chase Bank (“JPMorgan mortgage”).  JPMorgan Chase claimed that a subordination agreement was entered into between Peoples State Bank and JPMorgan Chase Bank so that the Peoples mortgage was made subordinate to the JPMorgan mortgage, placing the JPMorgan mortgage in a first/senior lien position against the property.

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House Bill 4463: Proposed Law Would Allow LLC’s to Pursue Landlord/Tenant Evictions without an Attorney

On March 30, 2017, Representatives VanSingel, Lucido, Sheppard, Webber, Howrylak and
Calley proposed House Bill 4463, which would amend MCL 600.101, et seq. by including a new section 5707.  Under current Michigan law, a limited liability company (“LLC”) is required to be represented by an attorney for any landlord/tenant matters.  The proposed law would allow single member LLCs (or two member LLCs if the two members are married) to handle evictions without requiring an attorney under certain circumstances.

First, the amount in dispute could not exceed the limit for small claims matters [currently $5,500].  Thus, if the damages exceeded $5,500 then an attorney would still be required.  Second, the LLC may only be represented by a member, a property manager or other agent with direct and personal knowledge of the facts in the complaint.

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